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Synthetic Grass and Artificial Turf Glossary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  Go to the top of: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  
 
Abrasion
The damage caused by aggressive grooming equipment, heavy traffic with inappropriate footwear, improper vehicle traffic or infill materials that "irritate" or wear the yarn fiber surfaces

Abrasion Resistant

A measure of the fibers ability to withstand wear. Abrasion testing is performed mechanically by a tetrapod tester. Actual on-the-floor testing may also be conducted under regulated traffic conditions. Testing onsite at the installation is possible and acredited certification is required of testing facilities.

Accessibility Ease of access into and from an area - specifically dealing with accessibility as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) in that a public area will be safely accessible to all persons.
Acylic A quick drying thermoplastic used for coatings and adhesives.
ADA American Disabilities Act - sets standards required to be met in public buildings and project sites providing safe, accessible access to all persons. For further details go to www.ada.gov
Adhesives Visous materials that are used to stick materials together, permenantly. (see glue) Adhesives must be selected under various specification criteria; moisture, temperature variances; backing and flooring materials, indoor or outdoor use; conditions of installation; hazardous handling conditions, flammability, contact time frame. Always ask for a MSDS (Materials Safety Description)
Aggregate Aggregate base materials consist of several different sizes and/or types of crushed quarry rock and dust. Larger, courser gravels can range from 1/4 inch to over 1.5 inches in average size (radius) and the materials will always be mixed with quarry fines (also known as crusher dust). When used as imported base materials, compaction should occur at every 2 to 4 inch lift or as base materials change.
Anti-Static
The ability of the fibers to disperse electrostatic charges and reduce the build-up of static electricity.
Anti-Microbial
Yarn or surface materials chemically treated to reduce the growth of common elements. Additives treat specific challenges such as bacteria, fungi, yeast, mold and mildew.
Appearance Retention
Appearance retention, or the ability to remain visually attractive during its expected life, is directly affected by such factors as turf construction, performance of pile yarns, and the appropriateness of the turf selected for the end-use.
ASTM American Standards
Attached Cushion
A cushioning material, such as foam, rubber or urethane, adhered to the backing fabric side of the turf to provide additional dimensional stability, thickness and padding for fall zone safety.
Average Pile Yarn Weight
Mass per unit area of the pile yarn including buried portions of the pile yarn, In the US - this is usually expressed as ounces per square yard.
Backings
The materials that make up the underside of finished turf. The primary backing anchors the pile yarns, while the secondary backing provides extra dimensional stability and locks in the stitches.
Base Materials Imported job materials that will be used to construct the foundation over existing sub-base (native soils or other surfaces) and under the final installation of synthetic grass surface materials. Base materials may be comprised of, but not limited to the use of, crushed, clean gravel; mine rock and fines; compactable aggregates and road base.
BCF
Bulk Continuous Fiber (BCF). Continuous strands of synthetic fibers that are spun into yarn and texturized to increase bulk and cover.
Bobbin Yarn fibers are wound around the bobbin to store it and then when mounted on the tufting machine, the bobbin holds the yarn in place while it's fed into the process.
Bonded Urethane Cushion
A urethane foam product, granulated and bonded to form a porous foam sheet, frequently used as an extra cushion or padding.
Breaking Strength
How much resistance is expressed as pounds of force applied to one inch width in both the direction of the warp and the filling yarn.
Broadloom
A term used to define turf materials and other woven items that are produced in widths greater than 6 feet wide.
Brooming Another term for de-fibrillating or brushing-up the blades of grass or to describe the use of a broom to work infill materials into the surface (brooming in the infill - brooming up the turf fibers)
Buckling
A condition of wrinkling, bubbling, or ridging of turf following installation. Changes in humidity, temperature or base materials can sometimes affect conditions. Buckling can also be a manufacturing defect such as delamination.
Bulking
A method of processing yarn, usually by a mechanical means, to fluff it up and give more coverage with the same weight. Also nown as texturizing and lofting.
Butt-fit (Cross) Seam This seam is set across the width of the materials. Lines of stitches from both pieces are set together to continue the lines of stitches between pieces. The the stitch lines are off-set, this seam may show.
CWA American Clean Water Act which requires that water run-off from rain, snow melt and irrigation be managed to reduce toxic substances introduced into the water and insure public safety
Chalk and Chalk Line Chalk is used either in solid form or in powder form for marking. Powder forms of chalk, in various colors, are added to a chalk line to be used to snap a straight line across a surface.
China Market Used to mark porceline pottery and dishware, a "china marker" is a grease pencil that can be used to mark the backing of the synthetic grass materials and fabrics used in construction.
Clay Soils An earthy soil that retains moisture and when moist can almost be the consistancy of putty. When dry, clay soils are notably dusty, hard and unworkable. Devoid of any organic materials, clay soils generally percolate slowly, if at all. When saturated surfaces can rut and compact under heavy weight loads.
Colorants Additional elements introduced into the yarn fiber manufacturing to add color to the finished yarn.
Combination
A term that refers to yarns or fibers that are combined; one yarn is composed of two or more yarn fibers having the same or different fibers or twists: e.g. one yarn may have a low twist and the second yarn little or no twist at all.
Compaction The act of compressing the surface materials to reduce air content, decrease percolation and increase surface stability. Compaction should happen at every 2 to 4 inches of lift and at every change of material used. It is recommended never to attempt to compact 6 or more inches of lift; you will find that compaction is extremely ineffective and poor results make the area settle in time.
Compounding Mixing a selection of polymers, pigments, stabilizers and additives to the yarn's style or specification.
Compressional Strength The amount of resistence to compression from surface weight.
Conditioning Surfaces Any synthetic turf surface can produce a static charge. New blades can be the typical cause; larger areas and roof-top installations generally need some assistance. When materials are exposed to outdoor elements, over time, the grass tends to lose the ability to create or hold static in any way. To eliminate any potential for static charge or to alliviate a problem, simply condition the area with a 5 to 10% solution of fabric softener and water sprayed generously across the surfaces. We recommend an unscented liquid, biodegradable where possible. Leave the materials on overnight and then rinse. You may need to repeat the application in a few weeks. Generally, after the first winter, the grass blades are grounded and can't hold a static charge due to the accumulation of materials on the blade surfaces.
Continuous Filament
A single, continuous, strand of synthetic fiber extruded in yarn form.
Cover
The degree to which the backing is concealed by the face yarn.
Creel
A rack or framework at the tufting machine that is designed to hold yarns so that ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling during the tufting process.
Crimping
The processing of yarn, by heat or air pressure, to fix a wavy texture into the yarn and increase bulk
Cross Seam
Seams made by joining the ends of two pieces of synthetic grass together (aka a butt-fit seam).
Cross Section
The shape of an individual filament or fiber when cut at right angles to tits axis. Manufacturered fibers used for various turf types can have several solid shapes including; round, trilobal, pentalobal and may even be hollow.
Cross-Dyed
Multi-colored effects produced with turf is tufted using more than one color of yarn fiber.
Crumb Rubber Granules of new or recycled rubber materials used for infill or top dressing on synthetic grass materials. Granules are specified as new (EBDM) or recycled (SBR) rubber and are sized by the smallest and largest average radius of the granules contained in the packaging. Size of granules used will depend upon the application; putting green surfaces require smaller grain size than lawn areas.
Crushed Gravel Gravel that does not contain small particles or fines.
Crush Bands
Marks that appear widthwise in the turf pile due to wrinkles in the fabrics, created during rolling or due to the flattening of the turf roll during storage.

Crushing

Crushing is irreparable loss of pile height caused by traffic or weight.
Crush Recovery
Crush recovery describes the ability of the synthetic grass surfaces to rebound back upright after being walked on or having weight from furniture or other elements on it. To encourage good recovery, all synthetic grass surfaces made for lawn and landscape will benefit from some amount of infill materials which provide horizontal and vertical stability as well as UV protection for blades and backings.
Culvert
An enclosed pipe or pipeline used to carry run-off water; generally under roads and buildings.
Cut Pile
A finished turf surface in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile yarn
Cut and Loop Pile
A finished turf surface in which the face is composed of a combination of cut ends of pile yarns and loops of other fibers
Decomposed Granite Decomposed granite or DG is a common building material used for basic synthetic grass lawn and landscape projects. A minmum of 2 inches to a maximum of 4 inchs of DG can be used confidently, under most building conditions. DG can hold moisture, become saturated in damp climates making the surfaces prone to failure (ruts, dents, sinking issues) especially if required to hold heavy weight loads. Under climate conditions where rainfall or snow pack may saturate soil conditions, ASGi recommends use of a minimum of 3 inches of road base or 3/4 aggregate with fines, instead of DG.
De-Fibrillation The "blooming" or brushing up of yarn blade surface fibers prior to installation of infill. Over defibrillation can wear out fibers and use of metal brushes can damage yarn surfaces and may void warranty.
Delamination
Separation of the secondary backing or attached cushion from the promary backing of the turf
Degradate, Degradation
The "wearing out" or weakening of a system or substance. "The effectiveness of UV protection, the strength of fibers, backing and the porousity of a surface might degradate during the life of the turf."

Denier

A yarn size unit.  The weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn end.  Denier is a direct yarn numbering system; the higher the DENIER, the LARGER or HEAVIER the yarn.  Fibers used for lawn and landscape grass styles are available from 7000 to 11,000 denier while putting green fibers are available in 5400 - 7600 denier.

Density

Amount of pile in a given area of carpet which reflects the closeness of the pile yarns - regardless of the yarn's denier (individual blade size), texture (individual yarn shape)

Dimensional Stability
Refers to the ability of the finished turf surfaces to retain its original size and shape.
Direct or Double Glue Down
The installation method whereby the turf is adhered to the floor using adhesives. A Double Glue Down refers to the installation of a cushion to direct to the flooring and the turf to the cushion.
Double-Glued Seams
Double-glued seams attach turf to bare floor to prevent delaminating and edge ravel.  Installers should double-glue seams to prevent fuzzing.
Drain Rock Any 1/2 to 1.5 inch round rock or gravel used for layers of compactable drainage base material. Drain rock is typically the first materials to be used over native soils, drainage and fabrics. A secondary layer of porous fabrics should be used over the drain rock, prior to additional compactable base materials being imported and compacted on top. This drain rock layer should be a minimum of two inches deep and can be used when constructing dry well or curtain drain applications.
Drop Spreader A drop spreader is normally used for the application of fertilizers, seeds and other top dressed materials where the calibration of the amount of materials deposited per square foot or acre needs to be measured evenly across the surfaces. Drop spreaders can be designed as walk-behind or tow-behind units and the hoppers can hold from 50 to hundreds of pounds of materials. At the base of the inside of the hopper, a rotating cylinder helps move materials through adjustable openings in the hopper floor, allowing a measured amount of materials to drop out of the bottom of the hopper.
Dry Hand
The feel of the t urf is dry to the touch
Dry Well A dry well describes any type of basin created under ground to catch watershed and help hold it during native soil percolation. Dry wells can be constructed from drums (preferrablly polyethylene), fabrics and drain rock, or a variation of both. Where possible, daylight from the drywell using a hard drain line system to relieve the dry well of excessive water and provide a quick flow to an appropriate daylight. Dry well treatments are an extremely effective way to relieve surface water retention to below a synthetic grass installation in damp climates; especially in heavy clay soil regions. Dry wells can be any depth, size and shape that is appropriate for need and site conditions.
DTEX
DTEX is the abbreviation for decitex; the weight of yarn in grams of 10,000 meters of yarn. Most synthetic yarns for turf are specified by DTEX. A general specification of 8800 DTEX is common.
Durability
Durability is a measure of how long something will last under a series of conditions. Synthetic grass materials are extremely durable and stand up to a great deal of traffic, extremes of outdoor conditions, high and low UV factors, use and abuse. Each component of the turf system is engineered with durabiltiy in mind and as a system is designed to bring together the best components to deliver the highest durability available.
EDPM Rubber
Extrusion Melting the mixture of selected polymers, pigments, process stabilizers and additives used in making yarn fibers.
Fabric Materials used under and through-out the construction of a synthetic grass project. Woven and non-woven, commercial grade materials provide additional horizontal and vertical stability to every install. See underlayment fabric.
Face
Also known as the nap or the pile of the surfaces of turf. It describes the total visable surface of the finished turf materials.

Face Weight

Face weight is the number of ounces of fiber per square yard in the face of the turf (not including the backing). The face weight affects performance and durability. Face weight is different from density because it varies with turf height.
Fading Loss of color. Caused by actinic radiation, such as sunlight or artificial light; atmospheric gases, including ozone, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide; cleaning and bleaching chemicals, such as sodium hypochlorite and other household and industrial products; chlorine chemicals for swimming pools; and other factors. Commercial installations in areas where such exposures occur require extreme care in selection of colorfast turf.
Fadeometer A laboratory device for determining the effects of light on the properties of yarns, fibers, fabrics, turf, plastic and other materials. It uses a standard light source to simulate approximately the spectrum of sunlight. Generally used for measuring fade resistance of turf colors, which are rated according to the number of units exposure required to produce visible loss of color.
Fall Zone Safe Fall zone safe installations meet standards defined by ASTM Guidelines. Most public works projects, municipalities, schools, daycare and community centers need to provide a minimum of 6 foot fall zone safe surfaces below any playground equipment installed above the synthetic grasses.

Fiber

Fiber is the fundamental component of turf.  Turf fibers are made from nylon, polyproprylene or polyethylene, colorants, stablizers and other enhancements to provide features such as low-slip, UV protection, anti-static, anti-microbial in nature.
Feathering Using a soft, gentle motion, base materials can be "feathered" into one another; one pile of materials into another pile; during base construction. The action of feathering is to achieve a smooth transition between piles or types of materials over the site. You can also "feather" infill materials into a surface where infill may need to be added. The word describes a "light touch" to what ever action you choose.
Fiber Material Yarn fibers can be manufacturered from various natural and synthetic materials. Synthetic grasses and artificial turf are typically made from one or a combination of two or more of the following fiber materials; nylon, polypropylene or polyethylene.
Fiber Style A fiber's style can be made up of several specifications; fiber weight, fiber color, fiber length,etc.
Fiber Thickness A fiber's thickness is measured by it's height on the edge of the fiber. Fibers are processed in several steps and a fiber's finished thickness can vary from it's original measure - much like a 2 x 4 piece of lumber is not 2 inches by 4 inches when finished and sold for use in construction. The number of blades per stitch need to be taken into account when reviewing the value of a fiber's thickness for lawn and landscape use unless the project is under extreme traffic or weight loads.
Fiber Width The width of the fiber is measured across its "face" and can effect the color, shine, vertical recovery and durability of the fibers under extreme conditons; especially field applications.
Filament A single, continuous strand of synthetic fiber.
Fibrillated Tape A type of yarn styling that produces tapes that vary in width. The tapes are slit length wise at random intervals, across the width of the tape. The tape is twisted and placed on dowells (bobbins) ready for the mills to tuft it into backings to make turf. These fibrillated tape fibers will split during the infilling steps, causing the turf surfaces to "bloom" or de-fibrillate, creating a natural looking surface.
Fibrillation Stretched polymers are cut into specified thickness and then cut again to pierce the yarn sufaces for later finishing during installation (commonly called blooming or de-fibrillation)
Film Yarn  
Fines You could describe fines as the dust like and small particles of finer crushed gravels and rocks. The particles mixed with larger gravel help to create a compactable base material. Fines alone can also compact though denser than fines mixed with larger crushed gravel. Fines are usually described as any quarried material that is smaller than 1/4 inch to the texture of fine silt or talcom powder.
Fire Retardant

Additive to enhance the fire retardancy of the synthetic grass fibers; generally, most fiber materials will not combust, however they will melt at temperatures exceeding 500 degrees (F). Each synthetic grass material will be different and if needed for purposes of liability or accountability, manufactures are required to have this information on file - ask for the MSDS (Materials Safety Data Sheet) for your product

First Generation Turf A tightly curled, nylon fiber, woven into a foam backed material. The first installations were engineered to be glued down on top of hard surfaces, such as, concrete and asphalt. The First Generation of turf was inspired by the Ford Foundation's request to improve inner city play areas.
Flammability
See Pill Test.
Flexural Stength The amount of bend or flex something exhibits against pressure.
Float To float materials is to gently and smoothly spread them across the installation site. The objective is to leave the surfaces without ruts, bumps or bumps in the surface; the surfaces level in all directions, etc.
French Drain A true french drain would only incorporate the use of a swale or culvert and drain rock to provide a channel in which water could shed away from building foundations. Today, most construction techniques that call out a "french drain" system incorporate the use of 3 to 4 inch corregated, flexible pipe, fittings and the construction of a drain channel, with fabric, drain rock, pipe, pipe sock and call it a "french drain" - either method has it's merits and uses and we encourage you to engineer your site plans to accomodate the worst weather conditions possible in your site's area.
Gauge
The distance between two needle points expressed in fractions of an inch in US. Turf is stitched into the backing at pre-set widths between rows—this is the gauge of the stitches. Generally, turf is manufactured at one of the following gauge: 5/16", 3/8", 1/2" to 3/4" stitch gauge.
Glue Adhesives that make materials stick to one another.
Glue Down The need to glue the turf materials to the flooring. Adhesives are selected for indoor or outdoor use, moisture, temperature variables, flooring and turf backing materials; use and function.
GMAX The amount of "bounce" of a synthetic grass surface - GMAX can be estimated for general use such as lawn applications; if used in public works projects where fall zone safe areas are required to meet ASTM standards, GMAX results can be determined by accredited testing facilities that provide onsite testing services and a certificate of validation of test results. GMAX is set on a turf surface in a variety of ways, the most common being the use of rubber pad materials over the base materials and under the turf surfaces; the use of crumb rubber and specific pile height, weight and density to achieve desired results of 6 to 12 foot fall zone safety. Surfaces that reply upon 100% crumb rubber infill and rubber pads to achieve fall zone safe installations should be tested for GMAX compliance every year; especially in high traffic sites in damp climates.
Granulated
Rubber
Rubber materials that have been processed into small grains of rubber for use in a variety of finished goods including synthetic grass infill materials. See crumbed rubber and mesh.
Hand
The feeling you get from the finished turf when you run your hand over it.
Hard Edge Hard edges are perimeter edges of a synthetic grass installation project that touch elements that will not or cannot move; walkways, driveways, walls, patios, fences, buildings, foundations, etc. Synthetic grass materials must be hand-trimmed to these edges.
Heat-setting

Heat-setting is the process of heating or steaming yarns to hold their twist.  Most nylon, olefin, and polyester cut pile turfs are heat-set.
Horizontal Stability Horizontal stabilty is the ability for the sub-base, base and turf systems to work to gether to keep the installation from stretching, shrinking or collapsing. Horizontal stability is engineered into the project by the selection of the site, base materials, edging, trim elements, base construction, drainage and final grade. Horizontal stability in a synthetic grass material refers to the stability of the primary and secondary backing materials to keep the synthetic grass surfaces from stretching, shrinking or buckling over time.
Hygrometer A device used to measure the moisture content of concrete prior to turf installation.
Infill
Material used to fill the voids between rows of yarn stitches in certain types of turf. Infill materials are also referred to as “top dressing”.
Inline Seam Seams running the length of the turf (same direction as the lines of stitches). Sometimes called side or length seams.
Impact Stength The amount of force, abruptly administered (such as stiking a surface with a hammer) that it can handle without damage.
Inlaid Lines A term used in the sports field industry to describe the white and other colored lines used to mark end zones, goals, and other indicators that cannot be tufted into the sports turf at the mill.
Knit de Knit (KdK) Knit de knit is a treatment that is applied to straight turf fibers after their intitial creation. The yarn is knitted into socks; heat set, unravelled and wound onto bobbins. This process gives the finished yarn a curly appearance and helps to relieve the effect of pile direciton in the grass surfaces; making the surface non-directional. Many nylon, non-fill putting green and newer lawn grass products use KdK yarn.
Knitted

Knitted turf is formed by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops - generally synthetic turf is tufted, not knitted.
Latex Latex is a natural product used as a secondary backing material to lock stitches in place and provide additional dimensional stability.
Lift A lift describes the raising of the base materials. A lift of two inches will raise the construction site by two inches above the previous level, generally with imported materials. Compaction should happen at every 2 to 4 inches of lift and at every change of material used. Never attempt to compact 6 or more inches of lift, you will find that compaction is extremely ineffective and poor results make the area settle in time.
Lisport Test A sportfield standardized test used in the field industry to determine wear in tufted materials.
Luster
The brightness, sheen or shine of fibers and yarns. Synthetic fibers are produced in various luster classifications including bright, semibright, semidull and dull. Bright fibers usually are clear (have no white pigment), whereas the duller designations have small amounts of white pigments, such as titanium dioxide. Luster of finished turf also depends upon yarn heat-setting methods, dyeing and finishing. In high-traffic, commercial areas using turf products, duller turf fibers are often preferred for soil-hiding ability.
 
Macro curl The amount of curl knitted into a KdK yarn. Macro curl, as compared to micro curl, is a more open shape; like a loosely curled ribbon.
Maintenance Synthetic grass and artificial turf requires maintenance to keep it's appearance. Lower maintenance requirements than natural grasses, synthetic materials still must be kept free of debris, decomposing or composting items, weeds and trash. See ASGi Grooming tips for info.
Matting
Matting is the usually irreversible adhesion of turf yarn caused by traffic or dirt.  Matting can be minimalized by exercising the turf with either power brushes or manual “raking” it back to height .
Memory
Yarn memory refers to texture retention.
Mesh The definition of a unit of measurement to determine the size variable of the grains of granulated materials such as crumbed rubber and silica sand infill. Mesh is often stated in variances such as 16-30 and 12-24 which denotes the smallest and largest average size of granules found in the delivered products. Smaller numbers actually represent larger grain sizes (or mesh), larger numbers describe smaller and finer grains of material. No synthetic turf system benefits from infill smaller than 30 mesh and most turf systems and system integrators will use a standard 12-24 mesh for lawn areas and a fine mesh of 16-30 for putting greens and bocce court surfaces. To separate materials, a screening process is used to separate out various size grains to standardize on packaging for use.
Micro curl The amount of curl knitted into a KdK yarn. Micro curl, as compared to macro curl, is a more tightly wound curl.
Miter Joint
Where two pieces of turf are seamed at a 45 degree angle to each other
Monofilament  
Monotape  
MSDS Materials Safety Data Sheet or MSDS is created by the manufacturer of a product to provide the details needing to be disclosed regarding the components and ingredients of products manufacturered or imported into America (most countries have like standards). Your manufacturer or representative should have a copy of the MSDS on all products included in your project plan. For commercial projects, keeping MSDS on file for each component is critical as many solutions providers may use contact glues and adhesives that require special handling, disposal or fire control or safety issues.
Native Soil We refer to the natural conditions of the soils of the installation site; native soils can be clay, lome, sand, peat, etc. Native soil conditions and, local rainfall, snow and watershed/drainage aspects of the installation must all be weighed against project use goals when engineering a synthetic grass design.
Needle Punched
Needle punched turf is stitched into backing material.
Non-woven A fabric made up of a web of fibers held together by a chemical or fibrous bonding agent.
Nylon (PA) Nylon is the primary product in a synthetic polyamide family widely used as a turf face yarn in either BCF or staple yarn form. Two chemical types, nylon-6,6 and nylon-6, are used in turf. Nylon-6,6 is hexamethylene diamin and nylon-6 is polycaprolactam.
Olefin Any long chain, synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of ethylene, propylene or other olefin units. Polypropylene and polyethylene are used in turf as both backing and pile fiber. See Polyethylene (PE) and Polypropylene (PP).
Organic Material Any material that can decompose over time; bark, amended soils, chips, shells, and other mulch materials; weeds, root systems, natural fibers such as jute, unwanted grasses and plants, etc.
Pea Gravel Small jelly-bean and round shaped pebbles that can range from 1/4 inch to over 1 inch in size. Pea gravel is used in the construction trade when a permeable base material is required that can be compacted and yet remain porous. Pea gravel can be used for many drainage solutions and as a base under stepping and patio stones, pavers and block systems.
Percolation The ability of a surface to allow the flow of fluids through it - percolation is generally measured in inches per hour, ounces per second over the amount of surface area, defined. (ie: engineered to optimize drainage by gravity, 30 inches of water can percolate through synthetic grass surfaces per hour).
Perforations Perforations define the holes drilled or heat punched into the backing of some synthetic turf materials. The perforations provide relief for watershed through the surfaces to accomodate percolation.
Perimeter The outer edge of the installation site of the synthetic grass area. Each area of synthetic grass has its own perimeter.
Permiable Permiable means that a surface will allow liquids to flow through itself - how permiable a surface is can be determine by a percolation test. Clay soils will be the least permiable and lome, sandy soils will typically be the most permiable (porous) of surfaces
Pigment Highly colored, insoluble, powdered substance used to impart color to other materials. White pigments, e.g., titanium dioxide, are dispersed in fiber-forming polymers to produce delustered (semi-dull and dull) fibers.
Pile
A pile is the visable surface of a finished product, often called the face or nap of the turf.
Pile Crush
Loss of pile thickness by compression (matting) and blending of turfts cuased by high traffic or heavy weight. Grooming turf surfaces will often lift the pile back to original height. All turf will crush to some degree during its life expectacy.
Pile Density Number of tufts both across (needles per inch or gauge for tufted turf) and lengthwise (stitches per inch) of the turf.
Pile Height The height of pile measured from the surface of the back to the top of the pile, not including the thickness of the back.
Pile Length The length of the extended tufts measured from the primary backing top surface to their tips. Pile tufts should be gently extended but not stretched during this measurement.
Pile Reversal


Pile reversal or shading is a feature of cut pile turf. Traffic bends the turf fiber in different directions creating an impression of light and dark areas.  Regular grooming can create uniform shades.
Pile Weight  
Pill Test Flammability test for turf to determine its ease of ignition by a small incendiary source, e.g., methenamine timed burning tablet. Federal regulations require all turf sold to pass the pill test (FF1- 70).
Ply A single component in aplied yarn. The number of "plies" tells how many single ends have been ply-twisted together to form a plied yarn (ie: 6 or 8 ply yarn).
PolyBac(R)  
Polyester A fiber-forming, thermoplastic synthetic polymer. Nearly all polyester turf fiber is staple, and the yarns are spun yarns. Polyester for turf is made from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol and is know chemically as polyethylene terephthalate.
Polyethylene (PE)  
Polymer In synthetics, the basic chemical unit from which fibers are made. It is made of large complex molecules formed by uniting simple molecules (monomers).
Polymid (PA) Nylon is the most well known polymid used in manufacturing today.
Polymide Material component of backing applications.
Polypropylene (PP) Synthetic, thermoplastic polymer used for molded items, sheets, films and fibers. Federal Trade Commission classification is olefin. The polymer is made by stereospecific polymerization of propylene. Most polypropylene turf fiber is solution dyed and sometimes contains ultraviolet stabilizers or outdoor use. The turf fiber is available as both bulked continuous filament yarns and staple for spun yarn production. Slit-film polypropylene is used in woven turf backing.
Polyurethane Material used as a secondary backing on the back side of synthetic grass materials. Applied as a viscous coating, the polyurethane is sprayed across the surface to help lock- in the fiber stitches and increase the horizontal stability of the synthetic grass materials. The secondary backing process is one of the last in the line of steps to producing finished synthetic grass goods.

Porous

Porous describes that ability of a surface to allow liquid to flow through it. How porous a surface area is depends upon many factors and can be determined by percolation test.
Post Consumer Materials Of or relating to products that have been used and recycled by consumers.
Post Consumer Recycled Content A product that contains some percentage of material reclaimed from consumer waste.
Post Industrial Material Of or relating to industrial manufacturing waste; also called pre-consumer material
Post Industrial Recycled Content A product that contains some percentage of manufacturing waste material that has been reclaimed from a process generating the same or a similar product. Also called pre-consumer recycle content.
Powerbroom or brush A tool used during the construction and grooming of synthetic grass installations, a powerbroom or brush was developed for use as concrete and asphalt sweepers and adopted by the synthetic turf industry as a tool to help defibrillate (or bloom) synthetic grass surface materials and help to distribute infill materials across the surfaces. A powerbroom can also be helpful to groom surfaces.
Primary Backing A component of tufted turf consisting of woven or nonwoven fabric into which pile yarn tufts are inserted by the tufting needles. It is the carrier fabric for the pile yarn. Most primary backing is either woven or nonwoven polypropylene.
Proctor Density The Proctor Density is a measurement used to define the amount of compaction achieved with surface materials used under roads, railways and other surface areas that carry any weight load or require a measurement of compaction to determine stability. Good compaction of sub-base and base materials results in minimising of its settlement on application of load, increases its density thus increasing its shear strength. The higher the Proctor Density test results the lower the area's permeability leading to a fall in its water absorption and reduction in its swelling or shrinkage. Most synthetic grass installations are compacted to a 95% Proctor Density to allow for percolation and yet provide a stable surface.
Relief Cuts Cuts made into synthetic grass materials that will help alliviate any tension in the turf while positioning it and trimming it against hardedges that are curved or odd shaped. Relief cuts can simply be straight cuts from the hard edge outward to the end of turf, they can be shaped in the form of an H or a T to help wrap surface materials around obstacles such as trees; or "pizza slices" can be made into the turf that is located directly on top of a landscape element such as a large rock, to allow the turf materials to be "slipped" over the obstacle and trimmed off at a later time. Relief cuts can streamline cutting surface materials to fit and in helping to fit materials around obstacles in the landscape.
Resilience The capability of the turf to bounce back to its original appearance after being used. How well a turf can handle high traffic or compressive force is detemined by several factors; resilience of fibers and yarn materials, denier (dtex) and infill system of the turf system.
Rippling

Heat and humidity can cause ruffles or waves in some turf.  A professional installer may be able to reset the turf to fix the problem.
Road Base Road base is a common term used for aggregate materials made up of 1/2 to 1 inch gravel and quarry fines and is compactable to 95% Proctor or more. Used heavily in the construction of base structure prior to the completion of concrete, asphalt, pavers and other masonry projects, road base is a flexible and stable base material used in no less than a 3 inch lift. Road base, due to it's nature of small chunky rocks and fines, remains porous and can percolate adequately under most conditions. Excellent choice for extreme lifts of 6 inches or more on any surface. Do Not Compact higher than 95% Proctor or you will loose any percolation and you might as well install concrete!
SBR SBR or ____________________ is manufacturered from recycled tire and other rubber products. It has been used as a major component in turf infill systems, resurfacing of sports activity areas, parks, field & track surfaces, horse tracks and a variety of other coatings and formed rubber products such as mats, bumpers and flooring products for restaurants, daycare and the hospitality industry.
Seams
Seaming
The line formed where two pieces of turf are joined. The action of setting the turf and seaming using one or more methods; adhesives, sewing, tacks.
Secondary Backing Backing material laminated to underside of turf for additional dimensional stability and body. Usually latex foam, jute, polypropylene, vinyl, urethane, or E.V.A.
Second Generation Turf Polypropylene yarns were introduced along with a new "shag turf" like metaphor in the early 1990s. The new yarns were less abrasive than the first generation turf products.
Selvage Additional backing materials at the outer edges on the width of the turf materials. Most selvage is used when seams are sewn and cut off when glued.
Shading
Shading is the same as pile reversal. Shading is the change in the appearance of the turf due to localized distortions in the orientation of the fibers. Shading is not a change in the color or hue, but a difference in light reflection which can cause the turf to appear a different color and seams to show. Orient turf in the same direction when installing to avoid shading.
Shedding New turf appears to shed blades after installation. Many of these blades were cut away during normal installation and were hidden during job site cleaning. They work their way to the surfaces, during use. Regular blowing and grooming will resolve this problem, quickly.
Sheet Rock Knife
A large step above a "box cutter", sheet rock knives are set up to allow for quick blade changes and may have a more comfortable grip and angle to the handle.
Shrink Synthetic grass surface materials, like most woven products can shrink or shift under certain conditions. Where temperature variances can change from extreme cold to exteme heat, synthetic grass surfaces can expand and contract. A minor amount of "shrink" can occur on surfaces as they age, though, shifting of turf surfaces is more often noticed and can be mis-identified as shrink.
Side Seams Seams running the length of the turf (same direction as the lines of blade stitches). Sometimes called inline or length seams.
Silica Sand  
Silt and Silting The word silt can describe any material small enough to begin to coat a surface in such a way as to "choke" out light, liquid and air. Under landscape conditions, silting generally describes the clogging of a surface material that increases puddling, decreasing percolation and may contribute to contaimination, weed and moss growth, insects and system failure. Remove all unwanted organic materials and refresh and revitalize your synthetic grass surfaces by excercising and grooming with deep-pile carpet rakes or powerbrushes. This will help to keep fine materials from filling voids in between infill materials and will help to redistribute and even-out infill materials on the surface.
Slit Film
(Classic Slit Film)
See fibrillated tape
Snags

Snags can occur when an object tangles in turf.  Usually, you can simply cut the snag with sharp scissors.
Snap Line A snap line is a small box-like device, filled with chalk powder, that has a long string line wound around the inside where the powder can coat it - the chalked snap line is used to mark a straight line.
Soft Edges Any landscape or lawn edge that does NOT connect or touch upon a hard, unmoving surface material such as a walkway, path, driveway, wall, fenceline, or other surfaces such as field rocks.

Soiling

 

Soiling occurs when dirt particles build up in turf fibers.  Regular grooming, blowing and cleaning will prevent this problem.  Do not use high-suds products to groom. A simple vinegar wash will do for all sugars, salts and grease that might be dropped onto turf fibers.
Solutions Provider Providing you a finished solution, Solutions Providers are licensed professional installers.
Sprouting

Sprouting occurs when higher turf fibers appear on turf surfaces.  Simply cut the sprouts with sharp scissors.
Spindle See bobbin. A cone shaped core upon which yarn fibers are wound and then stored. When needed, spindle can be loaded into the tufting machine and used to deliver the yarns forward.
Spinneret  
   
Square Foot The total square foot measure of an area is determined by measuring the length and depth of the area and muliplying the two factors together; the result is the total square feet (SF) of an area.
An area of 10 feet wide by 120 feet long is 1200 square feet of total area.
Square Yard The total square yardage of an area is determined by measuring the length and width of an area; mulitplying the factors together and dividing by 9. An area of 10 feet wide by 120 feet long results in a total area of 1200 SF; divided by 9 and the area covers 133.33 square yards (SY).
   
   
Stability Horizontal (left to right & reversed) and vertical (up to down and reversed) stability is important to a synthetic grass installation. Turf materials, their backings, the base and sub-base construction of the job all relate to standards of horizontal and vertical stability. A project's sub-base and base construction should maximize horizontal stability to carry weight load. Synthetic grass' primary and secondary backing materials provide the turf system's surface materials to provide additional horizontal stability and the two, engineered together provide the required stability needed to suit the project objectives; To achieve vertical stability, synthetic turf systems are assisted by the use of infill materials to help stand blades upright and provide resiliency and cushion underfoot.
Static Electricity

Cold and low humidity often create isolated motionless charges of electricity. Some turf products may provide static resistance.  Humidifiers also limit static electricity buildup when used indoors. To alliviate static charge on any synthetic grass surface, condition the synthetic grass surfaces with a 5 to 10% solution of fabric softener and water, sprayed generously across the surfaces. We recommend an unscented liquid. Leave the materials on overnight and then rinse. You may need to repeat the application in a few weeks.
Stitch Stitches are measured per inch (US) and the number of yarn tufts lengthwise to one inch of tufted turf surface is designated as X per SPI (or stitches per inch).
Stitch Count

Most stitch counts are based upon a 3 inch square area of the turf. Taking 3 inch by 3 inch square—count the stitches to determine count.
Stitch Length Total length of yarn from which a tuft is made. It is numerically equal to twice the pile height plus the associated back stitch behind the primary backing.
Stretching During several steps, the extruded polymer mixture is pulled and stretched to align the molecules and build in strength. Much like an iron smith works metals to build them up, by pounding and folding and reheating, again and again.
Style A set of specifications that describes a component of or finished construction of turf materials. Style specifications are designated for yarns, backings and finished tufted materials.
Sub-angular Grains Sub-angular grains are odd shaped granules of materials. Sharper edges, peaks, cracks and fissures in the surfaces of sub-angular materials make them prone to microbial contamination and degradation, especially under heavy traffic. Sub-angular material degradation can lead to silting of surfaces; ie: used as infill, overtime, degradation of granules can decrease percolation, increase hardness of surfaces, decrease resiliancy and recovery. Sub-angular grains are shaped in such a way as to make them more abrassive as infill materials which may lead to synthetic grass blade degradation, at increased rates.
Sub-base Materials that lie under the surfaces of imported job materials. Native soils, concrete, asphalt and other surfaces can all be referred to as the "sub-base"; subterrianian base or foundation.
Swale A swale is typically used as an open channel to direct water run-off from rain and watershed.
System Integrator A System Integrator has engineered a specific set of components to deliver and install branded synthetic grass and artificial turf solutions.
Tabor Abrasor  
Tacks  
Tamp and Tamper A tamper is a hand tool used to compact small areas of soil or base materials. To tamp or tamping is the process of using the tamper to compact the area.
Tape Seaming tapes are materials used under the edges of two pieces of synthetic grass which will be used as a part of a seaming system to attach the two pieces of synthetic grass together.
Tensile Stength The amount of stretch the material exhibits before it breaks due to the pressure of pulling on it.
Texture The visual and tactile (touch) characteristics of the turf's pile. Texture includes luster, yarn twist, pile "hand", and pile effects such as cut, cut-uncut, high-low loop, and level loop.
Texture Retention
Texture retention or turf memory is the ability of tufts to retain their shape under traffic. Caring for turf will help texture retention.
Texturing Yarn The process of imparting crimp, loops, or other modifications to continuous filament yarns. Textured yarns have increased cover, resiliency, abrasion resistance, and insulation.
Third Generation Turf Polyethylene yarn fibers were introduced into the synthetic turf industry in the mid-1990s along with an improvement in the turf system's form, function and stability by introducing the use of infill.
Torsional Strength The amount of strength exhibited when the material is twisted under pressure.
Trim and Trim Elements Trim is the material or method used to edge the synthetic grass project where trim elements are the actual materials selected for the edging treatment.
Tuft Bind Force required to pull a tufted blade out of the backing.
Tufted

Term used to describe the process of manufacturering turf by the insertion of tufts of yarn through a backing fabric, creating a pile surface of cut and/or loop ends.
Turf and Turf Systems
Turf is a flooring fabric made from a variety of layers and types of materials. Fibers and backings can vary from type to type of product. turf products are generally specified by denier, face weight, pile height, stitch gauge and color. Turf Systems are developed by system integrators who select synthetic grass and artificial turf, infill, seaming and base materials
Twist

Twist is the winding of the yarn around itself.  More twist improves turf performance (especially in cut pile).
Twisting The fibrillated yarns are now twisted into a constant number and sent straight to packaging or on to one other possible process called texturing (see Knit de Knit, Texturing Yarn)
Twist Level
Twist level is the number of turns per inch of yarn.
Ultra Violet (UV)
Stability
 
Underlay Materials installed directly under the turf; generally thick pads for additional cushion, fall zone safety or other enhancement
Underlayment Fabric Fabrics used under and/or in between layers of base materials in the construction of a project.
Velcro  
Vertical Stability  
Vibrating Compactor  
Waste
The amount of surface materials remaining after the completion of the installation. Waste materials are generally recycled or reused (where possible) however a certain amount of waste is to be expected.
   
Woven
Interlacing strands of fiber into a yarn forms woven turf.

Yarn

Yarn is made of fibers that are twisted together to form a continuous strand.
Yarn Count
Yarn count reflects the amount of yarn packed into a given area.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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